295 Madison Avenue #1026
New York, NY 10017


Outpatient Orthopedic Physical Therapy

Individualized treatments one-on-one with your PT. Specific, measurable goals are set and your outcomes and participation is clear. Standards of care are rooted in medical research.

Runners Evaluation

Experience who you are when you run. We offer biomechanical analysis along with state of the art VO2 max and Optogait testing. You will obtain specific data on your form, ground reaction forces,side to side asymmetries, and running economy.

Our Practice

We practice orthopedic manual therapy, and believe in quality hands-on treatment. We accept out-of-network insurance; and will verify your benefits at no cost. Email info@nycustompt.com or call 646.205.3045 to learn more about our services.

wendy-winn-running-specialist-pt-nyc matt-jake-grundstein-physical-therapist-dpt-nyc

Wendy Winn, PT, OCS
Director and Running Specialist

Matt “Jake” Grundstein, DPT
Doctor of Physical Therapy

A decade of experience. Board certified in
orthopedics, ACSM HFi, USATF coach.
National speaker and consultant for
fitness and wellness organizations
Outpatient physical therapist. Recreational
triathlete and runner. Practices manual medicine
with the latest techniques.

Running Injury Prevention

running injury

Running injuries are triggered by many factors such as being new in the system or inadequate training, poor running shoes, training errors, among others. It is commonly said that prevention is preferable to cure. This is why runners should make it a point of duty to arm themselves with preventive measures than wasting precious time in healing various injuries. The following are some recommended preventive measures that runners can employ:

Understand your body and set limits

This is important running injury prevention as most runners often forget they are still in the human body. They are easily carried away with passion and enthusiasm for their career. Even when they start having mild pains, they ignore it until it degenerates to something that will affect the career they have so cherished. There is the need to take a look at your body signals, and understand when you need to rest, from when you need to speed up. This is where limit setting comes in. Having a perfect knowledge of your body and how it works will help you in determining the limit you set for your training and other running activities. Don’t compare yourself to anyone. Move at a gradual space from 5 miles per week to 10. If others are over stressing their body, they’ll soon breakdown while with your slow and steady style, you overtake them.

Short strides and running on level surface

One of the effective methods of running injury prevention is running with shorter strides than longer one as this reduces several risks. Also, running on rough surfaces can affect your heels and cause other injuries common with runners. For good foot and both legs balance, it is advisable to practice or train on level surfaces as balancing both legs is a great challenge in running.

Take a breakrunning injury

This does not mean you should go on leave or rest indefinitely. Taking a break in the running exercise implies taking some time off once in a while to rest and check your body for any warning signs because if you continue forcing yourself on, you might totally breakdown for longer periods than expected. To prevent long period of unending treatment, take time off to rest, stretch your legs, and also, place ice on mildly affected areas. Mild pains can only be attended to when you take a break otherwise; it will lead to more severe situation.

Engage in relevant training

There are trainings you can combine with your running career for effective result. This will not only help to develop those areas that are prone to injuries, you are also sure of running for a longer time without any strain. One of such training is strength training, which helps in strengthening those hip muscles. By practicing strength training as running injury prevention, knee injuries are kept at bay while you experience increase in your leg as they become more stable all through to your ankles. This training helps in balancing your muscles, which invariable prevents hamstring strain and other similar body strains related to running injury.

Wear the correct shoes

It is also advisable to get good quality running shoes that are light for any distant race.

Contact us to learn more!

TRIATHLETES AND PHYSICAL THERAPY

TRIATHLETES AND PHYSICAL THERAPY 2

Athletes who compete in any triathlon are usually faced with some health challenges that can impede their career if adequate care and exercise are not involved. This is where a physical therapist comes in to help in ensuring lasting and fulfilling career. A triathlete engages in multi-faced competitions that revolves around three sequential aspects. These include cycling, running and swimming, and as commonly known, they cover a wide range of distances. There are lots of injuries associated with them. These arise from overstretching muscles and joints. The various training they engage in cause some level of stress to tissues around bones, joints, muscles and tendons. These usually come with unbearable pains and difficulty in mobility. As a result of over use, tissues around muscles and bones become weak and less functional, leading to injuries. Also, because of the nature of their jobs, most of these people have strong thighs but weak hamstrings. There is the possibility of having injury in those weak areas. There are different methods that can be adopted to relieve these pains. Some of these are relaxation, resting as well as icing the injured area. Physical therapy has been found to help most triathletes going through these pains.

 

Categories of Triathletes’ InjuriesTRIATHLETES AND PHYSICAL THERAPY 3

Tennis elbow. This is also popularly called ‘lateral epicondylitis’. This injury is common with the tendon, which is close to the elbow. This is caused by the recurring stress placed on muscles. In general terms, this injury is common to those who carry out repetitive activities on the elbow and forearm like gardeners, tennis players, carpenters and bowlers. While other alternatives like icing the spot of the injury as well as resting the elbow can be adopted to find relieve, physical therapy seems to be the only perfect and long term solution that can prevent recurrence or adjust the body to the routine stress.

Swimmer’s shoulder. Since another focus and major aspect of the triathlete sport is swimming, there is the possibility of getting injury in the process of training or while in competition. The overhead rigorous motion of freestyle common with swimming is known to cause the rotator cuff tendons that are found in the shoulder to be painful and highly inflamed. The first precaution and the initial technique most swimmers should master and be perfect in is how to protect this area from unnecessary injury. As it is common to have this injury, with some form of massage and rest, it should be normal but where the pains persist for days longer than expected, physical therapy should commence in earnest.

 

The Place of Physical Therapy in Triathletes’ InjuriesTRIATHLETES AND PHYSICAL THERAPY 1

A physical therapist can help in recovering from tennis elbow through increased flexibility in the muscle areas affected. He/she strengthens those muscles in a professional way to achieve desire result. It is the duty of the physiotherapist to identify the initial cause of the injury and also suggest the best way to prevent such occurrence in the future.

Also, in resolving the swimmer’s shoulder condition, a therapist will suggest comprehensive programme that entail some active release technique that are necessary in breaking up the scar tissue, core strengthening, postural with stretching.

Running Mechanics to Avoid Overuse Injury

VolumeIISports men and women have recognized the place of physical therapy in the success of their chosen career. Since runners are prone to injuries such as stress fractures, knee pains, Achilles pain, shin splints among others, there is the need to seek assistance of professionals to prevent them. Some preventive measures such as using appropriate running shoes, understanding the body, improving joint mobility, practicing strength training and improving on training errors have been found useful but running mechanics have been employed by therapists to examine and correct unusual stride patterns.

Why recurrent overuse injury?

Overuse injuries are somewhat subtle and happen overtime, the major reason they are difficult to easily diagnose and cure. They include swimmer’s shoulder, jumper’s knee, etc. Irrespective of the number of physical stress the human body is able to go through, it naturally has an internally built remodel that helps it to bounce back to life as it rebuilds worn out tissues. While balancing the process of tissues breakdown with that of rebuilding, it must be well coordinated as repetitive breakdown without similar number of rebuilding can result into overuse injury.

Factors responsible for overuse injury

This category of sports injury is often caused by poor running mechanics. Training errors range from duration of running per mile, acceleration to body postures. Another factor that can lead to this injury apart from these errors is runningresumption after a previous injury. The process of trying to make up for lost time often results in another breakdown. The presence of untreated old injuries and other possible anatomic challenges can cause this injury. Other possible factors include poor body alignment, which include bowlegs, knock knees, flat feet and unequal legs, the use of wrong shoes, body rigidity resulting from poor balance between flexibility and strength, as well as running on poor terrain. While it is a common phenomenon for runners, some are more prone to these injuries than others. Proper training and techniques are the basic ingredient to overcoming these challenges because what runners need may just be a change in form or correction of form. This is where physical therapy comes to play as it functions to train runners in the proper running form.

The place of running mechanics in overuse injury

Diagnoses of injury can be done through physical examination, x-rays and bone scan. Training by therapists can enhance running mechanics and reduce the recurrence of this injury. This includes cadence retraining and the combination of hip strengthening exercise with step rate retraining. Computer/video analysis such as excessive trunk lean, vertical oscillation, excessive rotation and over striding has also been very effective in correcting poor running features. The use of mirror, verbal cues and treadmill as real time feedback by physical therapists in a clinical environment has also been effective.

A running analysis from a professional physical therapist is the solution to all runners experiencing various degrees of pain and injury. If a runner cooperates with his/her therapist by getting involved in the training, overuse injury will be a thing of the past. Call us today at 646-205-3045.

Running Injury

Body exercises of all categories have one form or various degrees of hazard. No matter how careful an athlete may be, irrespective of his/her years of experience and other possible precaution taken, he/she is prone to experiencing one or all of the five common injuries peculiar to runners because there is no immunity against injury no matter how we try. The only possible way out is to have good knowledge of these pains and work towards prevention and safety measures. The following are the common five running injuries experienced by runners:

ACHILLES PAIN

The tough and rubber cord behind the ankle which is the linkage between the bone and muscle is commonly called Achilles tendon. Runners experience pain in this region of the body due to frequent running which can lead to its wear and tear. One of the symptoms of this wound is unusual swelling of the heel or back of the ankle coupled with pains, which varies from minor, sharp, sudden or continuous. While it is possible to treat this pain at home by applying ice to the affected part, and by massaging it gently, physical therapists may proffer a lasting solution, especially if the home treatment yields no positive result after three weeks.

MUSCLE STRAIN

Hamstring strain is another running injury peculiar with runners, especially those who are new in the system. Hamstring muscles are those muscles that are found behind the thigh. The symptom of the wound is sharp and sudden as it is similar to a kick on the hamstring. Like the Achilles pain, it can be treated at home by applying ice to the injured area for few minutes. Also, the leg can be elevated and place on a table, chair or pillow. Physiotherapists are also specialists in handling difficult cases.

KNEE PAINS

injuryThis is also popularly referred to as runners’ knee. It is one of the injuries common with runners as they experience unusual swelling below their kneecaps. While running, runners may suddenly develop some sharp pains at any region of the knee such as front, back or around it. The degree of pain varies from being mild to severe. It can be treated at home by stretching it or applying ice to the region of the pain for some minutes. For severe and unbearable pain, the physical therapist should be consulted for further assistance.

HEEL PAIN OR PLANTAR FASCIITIS

This is quite different from Achilles pain as runners feel it at the bottom of the foot or through the swelling of the heel. It happens when worn shoes for running are not in good condition. The pain is similar to stepping on sharp objects or stones. This running injury can be treated with ice on the affected part and also by consulting a physiotherapist.

SHIN PAIN OR SHIN SPLINTS

RUNNING INJURY 1Runners experience this pain under the knee, especially at the front of the leg. The pain is usually very sharp. Ice can be applied to the affected area in mild situations while a physical therapist can be consulted for assistance in case of swollen knees and other complications.

HAMSTRING STRAIN PHYSICAL THERAPY

hamstring physical therapyThe tearing of one or the three of the hamstring muscles results in hamstring injury. The tear of the muscle could be partial, a more complicated one or total. The three muscles are Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris. This injury is common with those involved in sport related activities like football, track and athletics. People with this injury have varied degrees of pain from minimal, severe pain to difficulty in running or general movement. The person can also experience less flexibility and reduction in normal strength. For those who have had tear for 2 to 6 consecutive times, they are prone to experience more of future injuries. While surgery is required for such complex and complicated cases, physical can also help in its management.

THE PLACE OF PHYSICAL THERAPY IN HAMSTRING INJURY

HAMSTRING STRAIN PHYSICAL THERAPY 4Physical therapists usually design treatment programs for people with this injury according to the individual’s goal and the nature of the injury. Within 24 -48 hours of the injury, a physiotherapist is expected to rest the injured area by ensuring no serious activity such as walking is done. Crutches are usually recommended for people having difficulty in walking. Also a physical therapist can apply ice to the injured area for approximately 3 times per day. This can be done for 20 minutes each time with a towel between the ice and skin to avoid direct contact. A compression wrap can also be applied to the affected area to reduce further swelling and pain. A physiotherapist is considerate enough to differentiate between simple and complicated situations. For severe injury, referral is made to another health care giver for better handling.

SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES OF THE PHYSICAL THERAPIST

A physical therapist can help restore the injured person to his/her normal position through the following four practical activities:

  • Range of motion. With the decrease in pain, the physiotherapist begins gentle but flexible exercises that can help stretch the muscles.
  • Muscle strength. The strengthening of the hamstring muscle is one of the major focuses of the therapist. Relevant exercise prescription to strengthen weak areas follows after the strength of the muscle groups in each leg has been compared with each other.
  • Manual therapy. There is also the place of manual administration of therapy in moving muscles and joints to regain flexibility and strength.
  • Functional training. With recovery comes the need to adjust to the normal movement without putting stress on the injured area.

EFFECT OF PHYSICAL THERAPY ON HAMSTRING INJURY

By adhering strictly and practicing the above stated guide, the followNeuromuscular technique applied to hamstringsing are usually the effect on the person undergoing the rehabilitation:

  • The usual inflammation and joint swelling is drastically reduced.
  • The excruciating pain associated with the injury is also decreased
  • There is reduction in the normal soft tissue swelling and inflammation
  • The aerobic capacity of the person experiencing the injury is increased
  • Balance, endurance, gait and locomotion are improved and increased
  • The joints are strengthen while there is improved mobility
  • Motor function, which includes control and learning, is greatly improved.

ORTHOPEDIC PHYSICAL THERAPY

 

Orthopedic physical therapy is central to managing, diagnosing and treating various forms of disorders as well as injuries relating to the musculoskeletal system arising from recovery from orthopedic surgery. This department of physiotherapy is commonly related with out-patients. These therapists specializes in the treatment of arthritis, strains, post-operative orthopedic procedures, acute sports injuries, amputations, back and neck pains and spinal conditions. They specialize in the use of sonography, which is used for diagnosis and others treatments. A lot of techniques are being adopted by these therapists in discharging their duties with the goal of faster recovery. Some of these are: electrical stimulation, strength training, joint mobilization as well as the alternate use of hot/cold packs.

Essential Qualities of Therapists In Orthopedic Physical Therapy

A lot find themselves in some careers without knowing the demands of their duties. In orthopedic physical therapy, a therapist is expected to display the following traits:

Flexibility. Patients respond and react to treatment differently. For a therapist who is dealing with different categories of people with diverse body make up, he/she has to be flexible enough to admit this difference otherwise, the problem of the patient might be complicated. If it takes A 7 days to recover, B 5 days, it might take C 14 days. There should be room for accommodating differences.ORTHOPEDIC  PHYSICAL THERAPY 5

Sensitivity. It is expected of an orthopedic therapist to exercise some form of sensitivity to the pain and situation of his/her patient. While he/she is knowledgeable in his field, he needs to come to the level of his patient in communicating both good and bad situations in simple and comprehensive language, and that with passion. There is the need for him/her to be associated with the pain of the patients. It is also advisable to be sympathetic and empathetic because these may just be the best solution to the critical condition of the patient which will also lead to faster recovery.

Dedication. An orthopedic therapist needs to be dedicated to both his duty and his patients. It is a challenging career that might encroach into personal programmes and plans. The desire to see your patients hale and hearty should be a motivating factor. Sometimes, dedicated therapists work extra time forfeiting their leisure and pleasure to the recovery of their patients.

Calmness. This trait can be easily transferred from the therapist to his/her patients. A calm therapist who is composed and confident in spite of a complicated situation is a good assurance for the patient that things will be all right unlike the one who is disorganized and disoriented at a slightest complex situation. He/she is expected to have a positive attitude towards patients with critical situations. This quality is indispensable for a goal-oriented therapist.ORTHOPEDIC  PHYSICAL THERAPY 1

Experience and strength. It is essential for a physiotherapist in orthopedic department to be vast in the experience in handling various degrees of challenges. Physical therapy is not for lazy people. Rather, it demands strength and smartness. A therapist should be equal to the task he/she is handling irrespective of his/her age, gender and race.

PROPER RUNNING FORM PHYSICAL THERAPY

running form

While sticking to the proper running form helps to reduce injuries to the barest minimum coupled with other benefits, sudden drastic change of form without allowing the body to fully adjust to the stipulated standard can lead to running injury. A runner may not bother about fixing his/her form as long as his/her running is without injury and also comfortable. The following are the recommended running form by physical therapy:

  • Engaging in short but quick strides. One of the causes of injury is over striding or long stride. This should be avoided to stay free of injury. Runners are advised against running and stepping forward with their feet.

  • Balancing the knee in line. If you allow your foot to strike in front of your knee instead of beneath it, you might incur some injuries. Keeping the knee in line is particularly advised when runners run downhill. No matter how careful you are when running, if it is your heel that lands on the ground first and not the foot, which is expected to be in front of the knee, you are bound for injury.

  • Pushing off and up. Runners are expected to keep to this form of running by maintaining the ‘push off and up’ style of running as they step on the ground behind them. The focus here should be on pushing the ground off and up as they run ahead.

  • Studying the elbows. Focus on keeping the elbow bent within or less than 90 degrees. This may seem difficult but with regular training and practice, you are sure of perfection.PROPER RUNNING FORM

  • Relaxing both hands. Efforts should be made to keep the hands free or loose. They should also be kept below the chest. By making your hands cross the midline and punching ahead, you are sure of losing your gait. This can also be done with ease after much practice.

  • Working on your strength. Strength and flexibility is the core of running career. For any runner who wants to achieve great result in the career, he/she must focus on this aspect. The areas to develop this core are both the abdominal and glutes muscles. If this core is well developed, a runner is sure to be upright in the period of tiredness. Ensure you stand upright without leaning forward from the hip as it can result in injury.

Proper Running Form Physical Therapy When Running Up a Hill

  • The chest and head are expected to be lifted or kept up

  • Look consistently ahead not sideways or downwards

  • Focus on the road ahead of you

  • Draw your shoulders backwards

  • While running on your toes, push the ground or hill up and off

  • Hunch over while maintaining a straight waist

  • Both hands and fists should be kept loose

Proper Running Form Physical Therapy When Running Down a Hill

  • Keep torso straight and upright

  • Your nose should be over your toesPROPER RUNNING FORM

  • Step the pavement softly without slapping it

  • Watch the descent with carefulness

Keys To Success In Physical Therapy

physical therapyPhysical therapy is a special health related profession, which works to give relevant assistance to patients to restore and maintain optimal body function. Physiotherapists specialize in the science of mobility or movement as they work as a dynamic team of the health care system as professionals who can also be regarded as autonomous practitioners. As experts in their field, they are the only people who can provide, supervise and direct services related to physiotherapy. They perform diversified roles such as scientists, administrators, practitioners, consultants and educators with a major focus of being practitioners. Like other professions, a physical therapist can also be successful in his/her career by possessing the following traits:

Key 1: Resilience and Confidence

The profession is characterized with stress and challenges that easily wear the practitioner off if he/she is not resilient in dealing with his/her patients. It calls for psychological and mental wellbeing to be able to cope with the aggression and frustration that patients can unintentionally transfer on them.

Key 2: Cooperation and Sociability

The physical therapy is a profession that requires a cooperative attitude with disorientated patients. There is the need to develop a sociable lifestyle as it draws your clients to your lively personality. They will not only entrust their health challenges to your expert care, but respond faster to the treatment. A sociable therapist will indirectly transfer strength to their weak patients. Being sociable will make therapists have far reaching success in the profession as they are able to interact with various categories of people from various backgrounds.

Key 3: A Determined and Calm Disposition

A lot of patients because of the pain they are going through can easily upset you by their reactions, resistance to therapy, tiredness and frustration. In a situation like this, when it seems they have given up all hope of recovery, you must stand as their motivator, encourager and problem solver through your calm disposition. There is nothing like possessing a strong will and maintaining a good composure when you are expected to be ruffled. This is one of the major keys to success in physical therapy.

Key 4: Flexibility and Physical Fitness

physical therapySince, physiotherapists perform the various movement techniques for their patients to watch and also emulate; they are expected to be physically fit. To record great achievement in this profession you must be active and strong. It is not a profession for weaklings. At times, therapists have to carry their patients from one place to another in their centers. This calls for strength as they must be fit enough to carry all body sizes and weights. In sum, they must maintain a healthy lifestyle through regular exercise, and also live what they preach or practice.

Key 5: Demonstrate Compassion

The recovery process can be a challenging period for patients. The physical therapist needs to possess a compassionate heart to be able to alleviate their pains through proper care and reassuring words. Patients can sometimes read the mind of care givers and they respond faster in a loving and compassionate environment than in hostile ones.

Running Evaluation

A specially designed assessment aimed at giving runners adequate insight into various muscular and joint malfunctions, which capable of having negative impact on their running career and also cause running related injury is running evaluation. In other words, it is like a training that prepares runners for the various challenges inherent in running and how to avoid them. It is very important for all runners of all categories to undergo this evaluation without looking at the cost of service because it will save them a lot of drawbacks in their passion and pursuit.

Just as individuals have different body frames, so are runners. This is why this assessment is necessary to identify muscle strength, flexibility balance, joint motion limitations and stride asymmetries in individual runners. While the training is general in nature for several people, it is runner-specific and practical, as it does not group all runners together but relate it to their peculiarities. The evaluation varies in prize and duration depending on the organizers and the content of the program. Most of the organizers and trainers have follow-up service schedules for their clients after the initial training exercise. This affords runners adequate time to master all necessary skills and to have all the fears, doubts and questions cleared.running evaluation

Contents Of Running Evaluation

The content of evaluation varies according to physical therapists and their years of experience. For most assessment, the following are the major focus and what the training consists of:

  • Orthotic or shoe evaluation. The physiotherapist studies each runner’s shoes for running, evaluates its functionalities and other possible related issues and gives relevant recommendations if they should be retained or replaced.

  • The video gait evaluation. There is hardly an assessment program without this type of evaluation. It entails the use of software called Dartfish Motion, which analyses a runner’s movement challenges. It studies the runner’s various planes of strides, makes a detailed evaluation through an on screen assessment and also analyses the running cycle in stages. It is the form of the runner that is strategically studied to discover any movement disorder.

  • Mechanical evaluation. At this point, the specialist studies the various runners’ tests to check for strength and flexibility of their muscles, movement of joint and other movements. The major aim here is to assess any neuromuscular imbalance and other movement problem.

  • Suggestions and recommendations. Having gone through the aforementioned stages of evaluation, the physical therapist then gives his/her recommendations based on findings. The runner might be asked to undergo additional training like strength training, running exercises or drills, leg stretching exercises and other suggestions depending on the general level of evaluation discoveries.

Requirements For Running Evaluationrunning evaluation

It is necessary for the runner to take the following along to the center of evaluation:

  • Runner’s evaluation form, which should cover his/her past history of injury (if there had been any), present career goals, training history as well as medical history.

  • Current pairs of shoes or orthotics

  • Running materials such as shorts and shirts

Running evaluation is aimed at ensuring a runner is fit for the exercise and prepare him/her against possible challenges.

Endurance Training For Running

The main focus of this training is to increase endurance in trainees. This training is closely related to enhancing aerobic system, simple muscular and cardiovascular endurance of athletes who are able to execute effective and consistent technique of running with minimum effort. The training is associated with different endurance sports such as distance running covering varied degrees of miles.

Various Endurance Training Methods

endurance trainingThere are basically about 5 different training methods. These are high intensity interval, intervals, periodization, long slow distance and hard easy training. The most common of these training is periodization. According to the name, it is done in specific durations consisting of periods of time between 4 and 12 weeks. The general purpose of dividing the training into periods also called blocks is to ensure the fitness of the athlete before a grand race. For those preparing for marathon competition, this period of training and preparation might entail covering designated number of miles per week beginning at the simplest and easiest form to a more complex number. The training is in stages, from base to build phase. These show the intensity of the training depending on the athlete and his/her prior experience. It is a training that graduates from one stage of development to another because interval training is more intense on the athlete or trainee.

How To Boost Your Endurance Training

endurance trainingThere are various steps you can adopt to help boost your endurance training apart from the general training methods earlier explained. You can increase you stamina with interval training as it comes with lots of benefits like burning off calories, building cardiovascular capacity and making each interval fun. It is better to do thing s in stages than running up in full speed at a go. At stretch running can be dangerous to health instead, build on intervals. Also, you can combine other forms of training like weight lifting, cycling and swimming to you normal endurance training for effective result. Weight lifting increases running economy. Cycling has the advantage of building your muscles more than the actual running exercise without any negative impact on your joints. Swimming strengthens your upper body muscles, a neglected aspect in most runners. Other boosting techniques include increasing your interval and speed every week. It is also advisable to run slower and longer. It is dangerous to run long distance at a stretch. Changing running terrains can help you adjust to different situations. Practice of jumping or skipping rope is an added advantage. Your diet also matters. Eat more vegetables and lean protein.

Negative Effects Of Excess Endurance Training

It is commonly believed that too much of anything is bad. This is applicable here. Excessive training affects the cardiovascular system by remodeling the structure of the heart and its arteries. Some cardiovascular adaptations are decreased heart rate, increased blood plasma without any effect of change in red blood cell count and increased stroke volume of the heart among other physiological effects. The common symptom of cardiovascular disorder here is increased rate of heart beat. Another negative effect is the change and reduction in the testosterone levels.